Christian Schott and Stephen Marshall of the Victoria University of Wellington have quite a nice paper out in the Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2021, 37(1) and on open access at https://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/article/view/5166/1681.
Coming from an Experiential Education (EE) perspective they draw on a UX model by Hassenzahl and Tractinsky (2006) which consists "of three facets guided by a positive focus on creating outstanding emotional experiences, rather than on adopting a mostly instrumental, task-oriented view of interactive products, which is a core criticism of traditional HCI."
- "The first facet responds to this criticism of traditional HCI and is termed beyond the instrumental. It incorporates aesthetics, a holistic approach, and hedonic qualities as features of the user experience. "
- "The second facet builds on affective computing and extends emotion and affect to the user through positivity, subjectivity and the dynamic of antecedents and consequences. "
- "The third facet is the experiential, which emphasises situatedness and temporality, and is characterised by user experiences that are complex, situated, dynamic, unique, and temporally-bounded".
The research used a VR experience of a Fijian island being developed to help better understand tourism economics on a Pacific Island, and the experimental subjects were Tourism Management students.
The UX evaluation identified 8 clusters of responses which map onto the three evaluation dimensions as shown above are were:
- Sense of Place
- Sensory Appeal
- Natural Movement
- Learning Enrichment
- Comprehensive Vision
- Hardware Concerns
- Screen Resolution
- Hyperreal Experience
- Motion Sickness
Pity that Agency wasn't on there, and it would be interesting to see how a 2D/3D evaluation of the same experience would change the ratings and clusters give.
The authors conclude that "The evolution of VR technology is increasingly enabling high fidelity and motivating EE learning activities to be offered at a relatively low cost, particularly when the logistical, resourcing, and ethical issues of alternative approaches are considered. The nuanced analysis of the identified positive and negative themes, through the lens of Hassenzahl and Tractinsky’s (2006) adapted three UX facets, has provided valuable albeit indicative guidance where to concentrate refinement efforts. However, it is also evident that a great deal of further research on the user experience is required to extend our understanding of full-immersion VR technology as an important opportunity for EE and higher education more broadly."
Nice paper, well worth a read, and the UX model and dimensions could be a useful one to bear in mind when looking at evaluating other 3D/VR experiences.
Hassenzahl, M., & Tractinsky, N. (2006). User experience - a research agenda. Behaviour & Information Technology, 25(2), 91-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290500330331