6 June 2022

Effect of Non-Immersive Virtual Reality Simulation on Type 2 Diabetes Education for Nursing Students: A Randomised Controlled Trial


A nice paper that we co-authored with Heidi Singleton form Bournemouth University on her Diabetes project in VR has finally seen light of day. You can read it on open access at:


The abstract is:

Background: A virtual reality simulation was used to teach treatment of diabetic patients.

Methods: This study evaluated the impact of using virtual reality on short term knowledge of hypoglycaemia, via pairing of a randomised controlled trial, analysed via Partial Least Squares-Structural

Equation Modelling. The setting was two large lecture theatres based at campuses within the UK. Second year nursing students (n = 171) volunteered to take part in the study. Students were randomised into two groups, control (n = 88) and experimental (n = 83). The trial enabled comparison, via preand posttest surveys, of the simulation with normative teaching methods.

Results: VR was found to be significantly (p ≤ .001) better in terms of hypoglycaemia knowledge than normative methods. The method also enabled identification of the key point of action of the simulation, which evidenced that the “engagement to immersion” pathway was responsible for leading to higher knowledge scores in the experimental group.

Conclusion: This paper claims addition to knowledge about how the novel approach taken has the potential to deepen understanding of how virtual technologies can affect learning in nurse education.


10 January 2022

Reith Lectures on AI

Thoroughly enjoyed Stuart Russell's Reith Lectures on AI. He just seemed to keep mentioning bits related to what we've done in various projects! 

In particular I liked this exchange from the first episode (https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m001216j) which touched on the approach we've been taking with our Reflexive Agent and our consideration of Wisdom and AI in our DASA/Royal Navy Intelligent Ship project.

"ROLY KEATING: Roly Keating from British Library. It’s wonderful to have

you here. Thank you for the lecture. I was interested in the language and

vocabulary of human intellectual life that seems to run around AI, and I’m

hearing data gathering, pattern recognition, knowledge, even problem solving,

but I think an earlier question used the word “wisdom,” which I’ve not heard so

much around this debate, and I suppose I’m trying to get a sense of where you

feel that fits into the equation. Is AI going to help us as a species gradually

become wiser or is wisdom exactly the thing that we have to keep a monopoly

on? Is that a purely human characteristic, do you think?

STUART RUSSELL: Or the third possibility would be that AI helps us

achieve wisdom without actually acquiring wisdom of its own, and I think, for

example, my children have helped me acquire wisdom without necessarily having

wisdom of their own. They certainly help me achieve humility. So, AI could help,

actually, by asking the questions, right, because in some ways AI needs us to be

explicit about what we think the future should be, that just the process of that

interrogation could bring some wisdom to us."

Spot on!

16 December 2021

Early Data Visualisation Experiments in Second Life


David Wortley, once the Director of the Serious Games Institute, has done a nice write-up of my early experiments on Data Visualisation in Second Life. You can read it here:


11 November 2021

An AI Landscape — What Do You Mean by AI?


I've updated my AI Landscape piece as I find myself using it a lot and posted it to Medium at  


I think I'll post all my long form pieces to Medium as its quite a nice platform to write and read things in, and probably gets more reach than the blog! But I'll always post links here as things get published.

10 November 2021

3D Immersive Visual Analytics White Paper - Just Updated


We last updated our 3D Immersive Visual Analytics White Paper in 2017! A lot has happened since then so it was well due an update - even though 80% of the paper covers the fundamentals which a) haven't changed and b) still seem to be learnt by many people.

 Although we stopped selling and using Datascape a couple of years ago the use of VR for data visualisation is still something that is very close to my heart and that I'd like to do more work on. My first steps in using WebXR are a move in this direction, and the current Traveller Map WebXR demonstrator is actually a data-driven app which has a lot of the key features in it needed for a WebXR IVA system. I'll hopefully get some development time over the next few months to pull a proper demo together.

In the meantime you can revisit some of our immersive 3D visualisations of the past at:

Read the updated 3D Immersive Visual Analytics White Paper now!

8 November 2021

David speaking at CogX on Virtual Humans and Digital Immortality


Somehow forgot to blog this when I did the talk at CogX back in 2019 but still highly relevant and been linking to it from the updated website so I thought I might as well post it up here as well.

1 November 2021

Jon Radoff's 7 Layer Metaverse Model and Market Map


Jon Radoff has an interesting "7 layer model of the Metaverse" at https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/the-metaverse-value-chain-afcf9e09e3a7 and a mapping of the recent Facebook/Meta announcements at https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/facebook-as-a-metaverse-company-d5712198b22d.

Needless to say we all have our own variations/comments on this. For me I think that Infrastructure/Decentralisation/Spatial should be the bottom 3 layers, and really the Human Interface should be the outer one - you don't (or shouldn't) build you virtual experience on the human interface, you should build the experience and then open up to as many interface types as you can. Discovery could perhaps be split between internal discovery (how you find out about stuff in the world) and external discovery (how you find out about experiences, and particularly how one experience links to another).  And should the Creator economy sit on top of the experience as in a true Virtual World prople are using the experience to create the economy, and then enhance the experience (so circular!). Perhaps something more like a network model would be more realistic (if less eye-catching) given the interconnectivities involved - it's not quite the ISO 7 Layer model diagram.

I'll have to dig out one of my old models.

Jon also has a Market Map of the Metaverse at https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/market-map-of-the-metaverse-8ae0cde89696 - which is likely to be quite dynamic!

Jon also has a Metaverse Canon Reading Guide at https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/the-metaverse-canon-reading-guide-9eb1b371b505